Sign in. Not registered? Sign up. Publications Pages Publications Pages. Search my Subject Specializations: Select Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Marshall and Alaine Low Abstract This book is volume II of a series detailing the history of the British Empire and it examines the history of British worldwide expansion from the Glorious Revolution of to the end of the Napoleonic Wars, a crucial phase in the creation of the modern British Empire.
More This book is volume II of a series detailing the history of the British Empire and it examines the history of British worldwide expansion from the Glorious Revolution of to the end of the Napoleonic Wars, a crucial phase in the creation of the modern British Empire. Authors Affiliations are at time of print publication. The population of London was about , In the late 18th century it grew rapidly and by it was over 9 million.
The population of London was almost 1 million. During the 18th century towns in Britain grew larger. Nevertheless, most towns still had populations of less than 10, However, in the late 18th century new industrial towns in the Midland and the North of England mushroomed. Meanwhile, the population of London grew to nearly 1 million by the end of the century.
Other Georgian towns were much smaller. The population of Liverpool was about 77, in Birmingham had about 73, people and Manchester had about 70, Bristol had a population of about 68, Sheffield was smaller with 31, people and Leeds had about 30, people. Leicester had a population of about 17, in In the south Portsmouth had a population of about 32, in while Exeter had about 20, people. In the later 18th century bodies of men called Paving or Improvement Commissioners were formed in many towns. They had powers to pave and clean the streets and sometimes to light them with oil lamps.
Some also arranged collections of rubbish. Since most of it was organic it could be sold as fertilizer. The history of towns in England. During the 18th century agriculture was gradually transformed by an agricultural revolution. Until seed was sown by hand. In that year Jethro Tull invented a seed drill, which sowed seed in straight lines. He also invented a horse drawn hoe which hoed the land and destroyed weed between rows of crops.
Furthermore until the 18th century most livestock was slaughtered at the beginning of winter because farmers could not grow enough food to feed their animals through the winter months.
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Until the 18th century most land in England was divided into 3 fields. Each year 2 fields were sown with crops while the third was left fallow unused. The Dutch began to grow swedes or turnips on land instead of leaving it fallow. The turnips restored the soil's fertility.
When they were harvested the turnips could be stored to provide food for livestock over the winter. The new methods were popularized in England by a man named Robert 'Turnip' Townshend Under the 3 field system, which still covered much of England, all the land around a village or small town, was divided into 3 huge fields. Each farmer owned some strips of land in each field. During the 18th century land was enclosed. That means it was divided up so each farmer had all his land in one place instead of scattered across 3 fields. Enclosure allowed farmers to use their land more efficiently. Also in the 18th century farmers like Robert Bakewell began scientific stock breeding selective breeding.
Farm animals grew much larger and they gave more meat, wool, and milk. The history of farming. There was little change in food in the 18th century. Despite the improvements in farming food for ordinary people remained plain and monotonous. For them meat was a luxury. In England a poor person's food was mainly bread and potatoes. In the 18th century drinking tea became common even among ordinary people. In the 18th century a tiny minority of the population lived in luxury. The rich built great country houses. A famous landscape gardener called Lancelot Brown created beautiful gardens.
He was known as 'Capability' Brown from his habit of looking at land and saying it had 'great capabilities'. The leading architect of the 18th century was Robert Adam He created a style called neo-classical and he designed many 18th century country houses. In Georgian Britain the wealthy owned comfortable upholstered furniture.
The Long Eighteenth Century
They owned beautiful furniture, some of it veneered or inlaid. In the 18th century much fine furniture was made by Thomas Chippendale , George Hepplewhite? The famous clockmaker James Cox made exquisite clocks for the rich. However the poor had none of these things. Craftsmen and laborers lived in 2 or 3 rooms. The poorest people lived in just one room. Their furniture was very simple and plain. The history of furniture. In the 18th century men wore knee-length trouser like garments called breeches and stockings.
They also wore waistcoats and frock coats. They wore linen shirts. Both men and women wore wigs and for men three-cornered hats were popular.
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Men wore buckled shoes. Women wore stays a bodice with strips of whalebone and hooped petticoats under their dresses. Women in the 18th century did not wear knickers. Fashionable women carried folding fans. Fashion was very important for the rich in the 18th century but poor people's clothes hardly changed at all.
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Traditional games remained popular in the 18th century. These included games such as chess, draughts, and backgammon. They also tennis and a rough version of football.
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It is believed dominoes was invented in China. It reached Europe in the 18th century. Horse racing was carried on for centuries before the 18th century but at this time it became a professional sport.
The Jockey Club was formed in The Derby began in For the well off card games and gambling were popular. This paper seeks to explore the materiality of the colour blue in eighteenth-century England, with a focus on indigo and Prussian blue — pigments that dominated the eighteenth-century blue colourant market either qualitatively, quantitatively, or both. The influx of imported indigo into Europe and England reached a peak in the eighteenth century, while the discovery of Prussian blue at the beginning of the eighteenth century had an enormous impact on the functioning of other compatible blue pigments.
The paper will attempt to address the main reasons that allowed for the rapid increase in the importation of indigo and the popularity of Prussian blue, and examine the ways in which these developments influenced other blue pigments. In addition to these encyclopaedic works, which cover various aspects of the subject, other research has been conducted on specific issues concerning colour. The most popular work in the domain of colour linguistics is by Brent Berlin and Paul Kay , which is devoted to the evolution of colour vocabularies, along with one on the semantics of colour by Minoru Ohtsuki It is worth noting that blue occupies a considerable place in the entire body of research on colour, probably even the leading one, with scholars of different domains having shown a particular interest in this regard.
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One particularly interesting interpretation of blue was suggested by Breanne Fallon , who noted that colours — and blue in particular — can take on the role of a mediator in religious experiences. An explanation for this attractiveness of blue can be found in the controversial history of its materiality and meaning which, depending on the time and location, has fluctuated from signifying spirituality and heaven to evil and hell.
Another possible motivation for the widespread interest in blue in academic circles is the fact that statistically fig. The first important change was the leap in the quantity of indigo imported into Europe, which became possible in the eighteenth century due to the well-established trade routes to and from European colonies and the exploitation of a free labour force, on which indigo cultivation relied. The second change was the discovery of Prussian blue, almost at the turn of the century.
Both the unprecedented growth in the availability of indigo and the introduction of Prussian blue to the eighteenth-century colourant market had an impact on the functioning and usage of other pigments available at the time. The use of natural ultramarine was mostly limited to painting, and as an artistic pigment, it was used with great caution and in small quantities due to its high price. Artificial and cheaper ultramarine was later invented by Jean-Baptiste Guimet in To trace the main reasons behind and the consequences connected to the shift in the amount of indigo imported and the discovery of Prussian blue, this paper will examine several popular eighteenth-century English publications on colour: Practice of Painting by the artist Thomas Bardwell ; A Treatise on the Art of Painting by the colour maker Constant de Massoul ; and The Handmaid to the Arts by Robert Dossie, an English apothecary and chemist.
These will be accompanied by a selection of artworks to illustrate the manner in which Prussian blue and indigo were used by painters of that period. Both indigo Indigofera tinctoria and woad had been used to create blue colourant for centuries. Woad was the source of the pigment used by ancient Celts to paint their skin blue for various purposes as described by classical writers.
Indigo has been found in the fabrics used for wrapping Egyptian mummies dating from around 2, BC Balfour-Paul 7, Both plants produce blue pigment due to their indigotine content. One such important difference is the geographical location of their cultivation sites.
Related A History of England in the Eighteenth Century - Volume I
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